FOAMcast - Emergency Medicine Core Content

We discuss Medicated Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD) including buprenorphine initiated from the emergency department.

This show was sponsored by Figure 1, a free open access application for providers using images and cases

Thanks for listening!

Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

References:

  1. Berg ML, Idrees U, Ding R, Nesbit SA, Liang HK, and McCarthy ML. Evaluation of the use of buprenorphine for opioid withdrawal in an emergency department. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007;86(2-3):239-44. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.06.014.
  2. Mattick RP, Breen C, Kimber J, Davoli M. Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(2):CD00220
  3. Pierce M, Bird SM, Hickman M, Marsden J, Dunn G, Jones A, and Millar T. Impact of treatment for opioid dependence on fatal drug-related poisoning: a national cohort study in England. Addiction. 2016;111(2):298-308. doi:10.1111/add.13193.
  4. Clark RE, Samnaliev M, Baxter JD, and Leung GY. The evidence doesn't justify steps by state Medicaid programs to restrict opioid addiction treatment with buprenorphine. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011;30(8):1425-33. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0532
  5. Martin SA, Chiodo LM, Bosse JD, Wilson A. The Next Stage of buprenorphine Care for Opioid Use disorder. Annal of Internal Medicine
Direct download: FOAMcast_MAT_.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 6:46am EST

 The Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM) world is often obsessed with magnesium. In this show we address the use of magnesium for various applications.

Magnesium for Acute Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response (RVR)

  1. Bouida et al. LOw dose MAGnesium sulfate versus HIgh dose in the early management of rapid atrial fibrillation: randomised controlled double blind study. Acad Emerg Med. 2018 Jul 19.
  2. Ho KM, Sheridan DJ, Paterson T. Use of intravenous magnesium to treat acute onset atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Heart. 2007;93(11):1433-40.
  3. Davey MJ, Teubner D. A randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate, in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45(4):347-53.

Magnesium for Migraine

  1. Corbo J, Esses D, Bijur PE, Iannaccone R, Gallagher EJ. Randomized clinical trial of intravenous magnesium sulfate as an adjunctive medication for emergency department treatment of migraine headache. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;38(6):621–7.
  2. Bigal ME, Bordini CA, Tepper SJ, Speciali JG. Intravenous magnesium sulphate in the acute treatment of migraine without aura and migraine with aura. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 2002;22(5):345-53.
  3. 1Cete Y, Dora B, Ertan C, Ozdemir C, Oktay C. A randomized prospective placebo-controlled study of intravenous magnesium sulphate vs. metoclopramide in the management of acute migraine attacks in the Emergency Department. Cephalalgia. 2005;25(3):199–204.
  4. Shahrami A, Assarzadegan F, Hatamabadi HR, Asgarzadeh M, Sarehbandi B, Asgarzadeh S. Comparison of therapeutic effects of magnesium sulfate vs. dexamethasone/metoclopramide on alleviating acute migraine headache. J Emerg Med. 2015;48(1):69–76.
  5. Orr SL, Friedman BW, Christie S, Minen MT, Bamford C, Kelley NE, et al. Management of Adults with Acute Migraine in the Emergency Department: The American Headache Society Evidence Assessment of Parenteral Pharmacotherapies. Headache. 2016;56(6):911–40.

Magnesium for Acute Asthma Exacerbation

Griffiths B, Kew KM. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating children with acute asthma in the emergency department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;4:CD011050.
Kew KM, Kirtchuk L, Michell CI. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for treating adults with acute asthma in the emergency department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(5):CD010909.

 

Thanks for listening!

Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: magFIX.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 8:24am EST

In this episode we highlight key articles in Emergency Medicine that came out, thus far, in 2018.

D'souza et al. Effects of prophylactic anticholinergic medications to decrease extrapyramidal side effects in patients taking acute antiemetic drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis Emerg Med J. 2018;35(5):325-331.

Driver et al. Effect of Use of a Bougie vs Endotracheal Tube and Stylet on First-Attempt Intubation Success Among Patients With Difficult Airways Undergoing Emergency Intubation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018;319(21):2179-2189.

Atkinson PR, Milne J, Diegelmann L, et al. Does Point-of-Care Ultrasonography Improve Clinical Outcomes in Emergency Department Patients With Undifferentiated Hypotension? An International Randomized Controlled Trial From the SHoC-ED Investigators. Ann Emerg Med. 2018; In press.

Perkins GD et al. A Randomized Trial of Epinephrine in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med 2018; 379:711-721

Meltzer et al. Effect of Tamsulosin on Passage of Symptomatic Ureteral Stones: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Aug 1;178(8):1051-1057

Kabrhel et al Multicenter Evaluation of the YEARS Criteria in Emergency Department Patients Evaluated for Pulmonary Embolism. Acad Emerg Med. 2018;25(9):987-994

 

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMCast_2018_literature_review.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:30am EST

We bring you pearls from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) 2018 Scientific Assembly in San Diego, CA.

In this episode we highlight:

  • Myths in diagnostic imaging
    • Torsion ultrasound is insensitive
    • CTPA for PE is not perfect. There are false positives AND false negatives
  • Myths in pediatrics
    • Response to antipyretics does NOT make viral infection more likely
    • Juice in kids with gastroenteritis is a great way to rehydrate them
    • Kids don't have to wait 24 hours on antibiotics for strep throat before returning to school, if they got 50 mg/kg amoxicillin prior to 5pm the night before, they're fine

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMCast_ACEP18_San_Diego_Day_3_.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 5:14pm EST

We bring you pearls from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) 2018 Scientific Assembly in San Diego, CA.

In this episode we highlight:

  • Problems with CYA (Cover your a$$) medicine such as admissions
  • Problems with lactate, procalcitonin, and other biomarkers

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMCast_ACEP18_San_Diego_Day_2_.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 8:07pm EST

We bring you pearls from the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) 2018 Scientific Assembly in San Diego, CA.

In this episode we highlight:

  • Severe pediatric brain injury, tips for management and preventing badness
  • Aortic dissection diagnostics
  • Chest tube pearls

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMCast_Pediatrics_Head_Trauma_from_ACEP18_San_Diego_Day_1_.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 6:15pm EST

We cover a JAMA Clinical Reviews podcast on lyme disease, including some myth-busters.

*Doxycycline can be used, safely, in kids < 8 years old

*Testing for lyme is a mess because : (1) we test patients with ultra low probability of disease (2) we test patients who shouldn't be tested (i.e. have erythema migrans) (3) the tests are a pain to interpret

*Lyme disease is spreading further south and west in the US, into Canada, and it's also increasingly found in Europe.

We then delve into core content for Rosen's, Tintinalli, and the IDSA 2006 guidelines.

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

FOAMcast.org

 

 

Direct download: FOAMCast_Lyme_v2.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:27am EST

We review the American Urological Association guidelines on penile fracture and priapism. We supplement this with core content from Tintinalli and Rosen's Emergency Medicine.

Direct download: FOAMcast_Penile_Fracture_and_Priapism__.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:31pm EST

We review one of the editors top picks from Annals of Emergency Medicine, which are free for 6 months from issue release.  The article covered in this podcast is Waldman et al, is a study of tetracaine in corneal abrasions.

We also review commonly encountered corneal emergencies:

Corneal abrasions

Corneal ulcers

and herpes keratoconjunctivitis.

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMcast_Annals_Corneal_Abrasion__v2.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 8:24am EST

Show notes at FOAMcast.org

We cover the 2017 IDSA/SHEA guidelines on clostridium difficile (c diff).

We then review core content on c diff including risk stratification and treatment using Rosen's and Tintinalli as guides.

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMcast_C_diff.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 2:32am EST

Workup for pulmonary embolism (PE) is common (perhaps too common) in the United States. The American College of Emergency Physicians has released a clinical policy on pulmonary embolism. We cover this policy as well as core content on PE risk stratification and "rule out"

Thanks for listening,
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMcast_ACEP_policy_on_VTE_and_PE.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:02am EST

We cover the emergency department care of lactating patients including

Medications during breastfeeding - who should "pump and dump"? (spoiler: very few people, check LactMed or InfantRisk)

Mastitis & Breast Abscesses

Emergency Department Support

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMcast_lactation_.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:30pm EST

Show notes at FOAMcast.org

We have a special April 1st show - the Faust-Westafer Central Theorem of Emergency Medicine. Listen for details

Thanks for listening!
Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMcast_Faust_Westafer_Central_Theorem_of_Emergency_Medicine_.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:00am EST

We review select articles from 2017 that are important or that got people talking including:

Sadeghirad B et al. Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2017;358:j3887.

Barniol et al.Levocetirizine and Prednisone Are Not Superior to Levocetirizine Alone for the Treatment of Acute Urticaria: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;71(1):125-131.e1

Wilson SS, Kwiatkowski GM, Millis SR, Purakal JD, Mahajan AP, Levy PD. Use of nitroglycerin by bolus prevents intensive care unit admission in patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35(1):126-131.

Hu et al  Variability in Interpretation of Cardiac Standstill Among Physician Sonographers. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Sep 1. S0196-0644(17)31376-8

Clattenburg et al Point-of-care ultrasound use in patients with cardiac arrest is associated prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation pauses: A prospective cohort study. Resuscitation. 2018;122:65-68.

Hinson JS et al. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury After Intravenous Contrast Media Administration. Ann Emerg Med. 2017

Healey CD et al. Asymptomatic cervical spine fractures: Current guidelines can fail older patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017;83(1):119-125.

Crowell et al. Accuracy of Computed Tomography Imaging Criteria in the Diagnosis of Adult Open Globe Injuries by Neuroradiology and Ophthalmology. Acad Emerg Med. 2017;24(9):1072-1079.

Talan et al. Subgroup Analysis of Antibiotic Treatment for Skin Abscesses. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;71(1):21-30.

 

Direct download: FOAMcast_2017_lit_review.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 6:36pm EST

We tackle some free open access medical education from the CDC on the flu vaccine, including:

  • Recommendations that individuals with any severity of egg allergy (including anaphylaxis) receive the flu vaccine. The only modification that needs to occur is patients with a history of true anaphylaxis to eggs should be given the flu shot in a setting where they can be monitored by a healthcare professional if needed (i.e. a doctor's office).
  • It is very unlikely that the flu vaccine causes Guillan-Barre Syndrome (GBS). If there is any increase as a result of the flu shot, it is 1-2 in 1,000,000.

We then dive into CDC recommendations on oseltamivir as well as contradictory data from the most recent Cochrane review.

Thanks for listening!

Jeremy Faust and Lauren Westafer

Direct download: FOAMcast_influenza_2nd_bounce.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 3:58am EST

Over at the Pulmcrit blog, Dr. Josh Farkas has proposed the use of phenobarbital monotherapy for the treatment of ethanol withdrawal and we cover this protocol.

We then dive into core content alcohol withdrawal using Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (9th ed) Chapter 142 , Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine (8th ed) Chapter 292, and Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies (10th ed) Chapter 81  as guides.

Thanks for listening,

Lauren Westafer and Jeremy Faust

Direct download: FOAMcast_Alcohol_withdrawal_.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 8:28am EST

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